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Hubble Finds Phantom Objects Near Dead Quasars

These Hubble Space Telescope images reveal a set of bizarre, greenish looping, spiral, and braided shapes around eight active galaxies. The galaxies host a bright quasar that may have illuminated the structures. Credits: NASA, ESA, and W. Keel (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa)

The green filaments are believed to be long tails of gas pulled apart like taffy under gravitational forces resulting from a merger of two galaxies. Rather than being blasted out of the quasar’s black hole, these immense structures, tens of thousands of light-years long, are slowly orbiting their host galaxy long after the merger was completed.

“We see these twisting dust lanes connecting to the gas, and there’s a mathematical model for how that material wraps around in the galaxy,” Keel said.  Potentially, you can say we’re seeing it 1.5 billion years after a smaller gas-rich galaxy fell into a bigger galaxy.”

The ghostly green structures are so far outside the galaxy that they may not light up until tens of thousands of years after the quasar outburst, and would likewise fade only tens of thousands of years after the quasar itself does. That’s the amount of time it would take for the quasar light to reach them. ”

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August, 3, 2015 – Watched:

Interstellar (2014)

8.5/10 and 9/10 for VFX.

Fun tech facts:

  •  Certain individual frames took up to 100 hours to render
  •  The movie brushed up against 800 terabytes of data

In depth article here:

VFX interview with Paul Franklin – VFX Supervisor @ Double Negative –

This film was a trip to watch. And I mean that in the most positive way. It has some “cheesier” moments, but looking past them, it was an epic film from start to finish in a “questioning” way.

I spent the past 4 weeks going back to re-study astrophysics/astronomy on my own time. Thankfully it helped a lot while watching this film. The more information you know the better you’ll be in following all the jargon used within this sci-fi adventure.

This film touches on tonnes of fascinating phenomena such as; Time dilation, Gravitational Lensing, Wormholes, Black holes, Hyper-sleep, General relativity, Accretion disks, Event horizon, Ice planets, Ocean planets... the list is big.

Definitely not enough just seeing this once, much more to extract from it so a second viewing is on my agenda.

Brain Wave Frequencies

Gamma Waves

These are involved in higher processing tasks as well as cognitive functioning. Gamma waves are important for learning, memory and information processing. It is thought that the 40 Hz gamma wave is important for the binding of our senses in regards to perception and are involved in learning new material. It has been found that individuals who are mentally challenged and have learning disabilities tend to have lower gamma activity than average.

  • Frequency range: 40 Hz to 100 Hz (Highest)
  • Too much: Anxiety, high arousal, stress
  • Too little: ADHD, depression, learning disabilities
  • Optimal: Binding senses, cognition, information processing, learning, perception, REM sleep
  • Increase gamma waves: Meditation

Beta Waves

These are known as high frequency low amplitude brain waves that are commonly observed while we are awake. They are involved in conscious thought, logical thinking, and tend to have a stimulating affect. Having the right amount of beta waves allows us to focus and complete school or work-based tasks easily. Having too much beta may lead to us experiencing excessive stress and/or anxiety. The higher beta frequencies are associated with high levels of arousal. When you drink caffeine or have another stimulant, your beta activity will naturally increase. Think of these as being very fast brain waves that most people exhibit throughout the day in order to complete conscious tasks such as: critical thinking, writing, reading, and socialization.

  • Frequency range: 12 Hz to 40 Hz (High)
  • Too much: Adrenaline, anxiety, high arousal, inability to relax, stress
  • Too little: ADHD, daydreaming, depression, poor cognition
  • Optimal: Conscious focus, memory, problem solving
  • Increase beta waves: Coffee, energy drinks, various stimulants

Alpha Waves

This frequency range bridges the gap between our conscious thinking and subconscious mind. In other words, alpha is the frequency range between beta and theta. It helps us calm down when necessary and promotes feelings of deep relaxation. If we become stressed, a phenomenon called “alpha blocking” may occur which involves excessive beta activity and very little alpha. Essentially the beta waves “block” out the production of alpha because we become too aroused.

  • Frequency range: 8 Hz to 12 Hz (Moderate)
  • Too much: Daydreaming, inability to focus, too relaxed
  • Too little: Anxiety, high stress, insomnia, OCD
  • Optimal: Relaxation
  • Increase alpha waves: Alcohol, marijuana, relaxants, some antidepressants

Theta Waves

This particular frequency range is involved in daydreaming and sleep. Theta waves are connected to us experiencing and feeling deep and raw emotions. Too much theta activity may make people prone to bouts of depression and may make them “highly suggestible” based on the fact that they are in a deeply relaxed, semi-hypnotic state. Theta has its benefits of helping improve our intuition, creativity, and makes us feel more natural. It is also involved in restorative sleep. As long as theta isn’t produced in excess during our waking hours, it is a very helpful brain wave range.

  • Frequency range: 4 Hz to 8 Hz (Slow)
  • Too much: ADHD, depression, hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattentiveness
  • Too little: Anxiety, poor emotional awareness, stress
  • Optimal: Creativity, emotional connection, intuition, relaxation
  • Increase theta waves: Depressants

Delta Waves

These are the slowest recorded brain waves in human beings. They are found most often in infants as well as young children. As we age, we tend to produce less delta even during deep sleep. They are associated with the deepest levels of relaxation and restorative, healing sleep. They have also been found to be involved in unconscious bodily functions such as regulating heart beat and digestion. Adequate production of delta waves helps us feel completely rejuvenated after we wake up from a good night’s sleep. If there is abnormal delta activity, an individual may experience learning disabilities or have difficulties maintaining conscious awareness (such as in cases of brain injuries).

  • Frequency range: 0 Hz to 4 Hz (Slowest)
  • Too much: Brain injuries, learning problems, inability to think, severe ADHD
  • Too little: Inability to rejuvenate body, inability to revitalize the brain, poor sleep
  • Optimal: Immune system, natural healing, restorative / deep sleep
  • Increase delta waves: Depressants, sleep

Photography and Sunsets

I noticed a few interesting spots to shoot some great sunsets overlooking some scenic locations today. Lots of great light available. So once I got back in I decided to do a little research and found this!

I’ve had a habit lately of only shooting on very clear, late sunny days. But while out today I observed the sky more carefully and noticed some interesting filtration through the clouds that added much more dimension to the photos. Nothing new really, but since its been so sunny here lately I totally forgot of how much of an effect the clouds have on the light coming down.

Civil, nautical, and astronomical twilight. The Sun is shown to scale.


Description and Definition of Sunrise/Sunset and Twilight Angles